Read Puranic Encyclopedia book reviews & author details and more at site. in. Puranic Encyclopedia (Malayalam) Paperback – 12 Jan by Vettom. Author: SHIBI MOSES Category: REFERENCE Publisher: DC REFERNCE: An Imprint of DC Books Language: MALAYALAM Face Value: ₹ Puranic Encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani, This voluminous work, a store house of and allied literature, was originally composed and published in Malayalam.
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his Puranic. Encyclopaedia, a really magnificent literary production, massive in size and rich and invaluable in contents. This is the first attempt in Malayalam. Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani, , Motilal Banarsidass edition, in English - [1st ed. in English]. Puranic Encyclopedia - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read the original texts but also modern works in English, Sanskrit, Malayalam and.
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His translation of Kalidasa 's Abhijnanasakuntalam in marks an important event in the history of Malayalam drama and poetry. Also Kerala Varma's Mayura-sandesam is a Sandesakavya messenger poem written after the manner of Kalidasa's Meghadutam. Though it cannot be compared with the original, it was still one of the most popularly acclaimed poems in Malayalam. One of the notable features of the early decades of the 20th century was the great interest taken by writers in translating works from Sanskrit and English into Malayalam.
Kalidasa's Meghaduta and Kumarasambhava by A. Raja Raja Varma and the Raghuvamsa by K. Menon must be mentioned. One of the most successful of the later translators was C.
Subramaniam Potti who set a good model by his translation of the Durgesanandini of Bankim Chandra from an English version of it.
A good number of authors familiar with the latest trends in English literature came forward to contribute to the enrichment of their mother tongue. Their efforts were directed more to the development of prose than poetry. It is interesting to note that a number of Bengali novels were translated during this period.
Potti, mentioned above, also brought out the Lake of Palms of R. Dutt under the title Thala Pushkarani, Kapalakundala by V. Thampi and Visha Vruksham by T. Kalyani Amma were also translations of novels by Bankimochandra Chatterji.
Although a large number of social novels were produced during this period, only a few are remembered, such as Snehalatha by Kannan Menon, Hemalatha by T. Velu Pillai and Kambola-balika by N. Krishna Pillai. But by far the most inspiring work of that time was Aphante Makal by M.
Namboodiri, who directed his literary talents towards the abolition of old worn-out customs and manners which had for years been the bane of the community.
Short stories came into being. With the advent of E. Krishna Pillai, certain marks of novelty became noticeable in the short story. His Keleesoudham proved his capacity to write with considerable emotional appeal.
Social dramas C. Raman Pillai was a pioneer in prose dramas. He had a particular knack for writing dramas in a lighter vein. His Kurupillakalari of marks the appearance of the first original Malayalam prose drama.
It is a satirical drama intended to ridicule the Malayali official classes who started imitating Western fashion and etiquette. There were other authors, less well-known, who wrote in this vein.
Poetry — the Romantic impact Kumaran Asan's celebrated poem, Veena Poovu The Fallen Flower depicts in a symbolic manner the tragedy of human life in a moving and thought-provoking manner. Vallathol's Bandhanasthanaya Aniruddhan, which demonstrates an exceptionally brilliant power of imagination and deep emotional faculties, depicts a situation from the Puranic story of Usha and Aniruddha.
Ulloor S. Iyer was another veteran who joined the new school. He wrote a series of poems like Oru Mazhathulli in which he excelled as a romantic poet. Parameswara Iyer considerably enriched Malayalam poetry. Some of their works reflect social and political movements of that time. Asan wrote about untouchability in Kerala; Ullor's writings reflect his deep devotion and admiration for the great moral and spiritual values, which he believed were the real assets of ancient social life of India.
They were known as the trio of Malayalam poetry. After them there were others like K. Nair and K. Panikkar who contributed to the growth of poetry.
Under the guidance of A. Balakrishna Pillai, a progressive school of authors appeared in almost all branches of literature, such as the novel, the short story, the drama, and criticism. Post-independence period Malayalam is one of the 22 official languages of India. Malayalam has official language status in the district of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. Malayalam also has official language status in the Mahe District of the Union Territory of Puducherry.
Dialects Dialects of Malayalam are distinguishable at regional and social levels,  including occupational and also communal differences. They are the laws for the four ages, the Krita, the Treta, and the rest, forming parts of this Manvantara.
All laws arose in the Krita age; all have vanished in the Kali age. Expound a part of the rules of conduct fit for the four castes, such as are common to all. In conformity to the character of the age, the rules of law suitable for men differ from age to age.
The rules for the Krita differ from the Treta rules; the Dvapara laws are not identical with the Kali rules. Self-mortification is the rule in the Krita age; knowledge is said to be the same in the Treta; in the Dvapara, they say sacrifice to the gods to be the sole rule ; and charity alone in the Kali age.
For the Krita are suited the laws of Manu; for the Treta, those by Gautama are prescribed; for the Dvapara those by Shanka and Likhita; for the Kali, those by Parasara are prescribed. In the Krita, one should quit a country itself; one should quit a village in the Treta; in the Dvapara one should shun only the particular family; but in the Kali, one should shun the perpetrator alone of an offence.
In the Krita sin is incurred by one who converses with a sinner ; in the Treta by one who touches the sinful man ; in the Dvapara by taking the sinner's food; in the Kali by a sinful act alone. A curse in the Krita takes effect the moment it is uttered; in the Treta it does so in ten days' time; in the Dvapara, in the course of a single month; in the Kali, however, it takes a year.
In the Krita the donor himself comes up to the donee and makes the gift; in each succeeding Treta age, the donee is invited and the gift is made; in the Dvapara, the gift is made to one who asks for it; in the Kali, however, gifts are made in exchange for service done.
Excellent is the gift made on coming to the donee's side; the gift after invitation is of the middling kind; gift to a suitor is of a low character; but gift for service rendered is fruitless. Religion has been overthrown by irreligion; and truth indeed by that which is false; kings have been overpowered by thieves; males have been subdued by females; the worship of fire is dying out; respect to superiors is ceasing to be seen; and maidens are becoming mothers: this is what invariably happens in the age of Kali.
Life in the Krita has its seat in the bones; in the Treta it has its seat in the flesh; in the Dvapara the blood is the seat of life; in the Kali, however, life is dependent upon food and the like.
Special are the rules of conduct for each cyclical age; and the regenerate castes are guided by the rules that govern the age; no censure therefore can attach to them; for the regenerates conform to the spirit of the age. Countries and villages will be infested by criminals and Vedas will be abused by atheists. Garuda Purana 1. Students will not follow their vows and will be impure.
Bhiksus will keep family relationships. Sadhus will be known as dwarfish, gluttonous and thievish. Ascetics will give up their vows. Sudras will accept alms and will be attached to the lifestyle of vaisyas.
When rebuked, they will just scratch their heads. O brahmanas, in the ocean of faults called Kali yuga there is one great characteristic though. Therefore one should always meditate on Hari and worship Him, o Saunaka.
In home after home the wife will be running after men. The wife will treat her husband like her servant. She will always rebuke him and make him tremble in fear. Brahmavaivarta PurANa 4. Instead they will worship their wives.
BrAhmaNas born in good families will become thieves, stealing even from the deities in the temples. Men pursue evil ways.
The Vedas have lost their power, the Smritis are forgotten, and many of the Puranas, which contain stories of the past, and show the many ways which lead to liberation , will, O Lord! Men will become averse from religious rites, without restraint, maddened with pride, ever given over to sinful acts, lustful, gluttonous, cruel, heartless, harsh of speech, deceitful, short-lived, poverty-stricken, harassed by sickness and sorrow, ugly, feeble, low, stupid, mean, and addicted to mean habits, companions of the base, thievish, calumnious, malicious, quarrelsome, depraved, cowards, and ever-ailing, devoid of all sense of shame and sin and of fear to seduce the wives of others.
Vipras will live like the Shudras, and whilst neglecting their own Sandhya will yet officiate at the sacrifices of the low. They will be greedy, given over to wicked and sinful acts, liars, insolent, ignorant, deceitful, mere hangers-on of others, the sellers of their daughters, degraded, averse to all tapas and vrata. They will be heretics, impostors, and think themselves wise.
They will be without faith or devotion, and will do japa and puja with no other end than to dupe the people. They will eat unclean food and follow evil customs, they will serve and eat the food of the Shudras and lust after low women, and will be wicked and ready to barter for money even their own wives to the low. In short, the only sign that they are Brahmanas will be the thread they wear.
Observing no rule in eating or drinking or in other matters, scoffing at the Dharma Scriptures, no thought of pious speech ever so much as entering their minds, they will be but bent upon the injury of the good. Mahanirvana tantra 1. Some will violate the wives of others, others will become rogues, and some, in the indiscriminating rage of lust, will go whoever she be with any woman Over eating and drinking will disease many and deprive them of strength and sense.
Disordered by madness, they will meet death, falling into lakes, pits, or in impenetrable forests, or from hills or house-tops While some will be as mute as corpses, others will be for ever on the chatter, and yet others will quarrel with their kinsmen and elders. They will be evil-doers, cruel, and the destroyers of Dharma I fear, O Lord! O Lord of the World! Under the influences of the Kali Age man will of his nature become indeed wicked and bound to all manner of sin O Shive!
O Sovereign Mistress of Kaula doctrine! O Wise One! When women become difficult of control, heartless and quarrelsome, and calumniators of their husbands, then know that the Kali Age has become strong When men become subject to women and slaves of lust, oppressors of their friends and Gurus, then know that the Kali Age has become strong When the fertility of the earth has gone and yields a poor harvest, when the clouds yield scanty rain, and trees give meagre fruit, then know tha t the Kali Age has become strong When brothers, kinsmen, and companions, prompted by the desire for some trifle, will strike one another, then know that the Kali Age has become strong When the open partaking of flesh and liquor will pass without condemnation and punishment, when secret drinking will prevail, then know that the Kali Age has become strong Mahanirvana tantra 4.
According to what process is decided for a particular yuga, that should be followed by all people without fail. Related: Abhaya Mudra dd - Deciphering the codes of Kali. Bhanu Swami: It is interesting to note in this connection that there is an old theory evidently held by the great Kasmiri historian Kalyana in early 12th century AD that considered the Saka era to have begun with the victory of the great king Vikramaditya of Ujjain over the Sakas see M.
Stein's notes in his translation of Kalyana's Rajatarangini 2. While this theory appears to be a mistaken result of mixing up the Vikrama and Saka eras, which were years apart, it is evident that even by the 12th century there was the need to find some "significant event" associated with the beginning of what became this most popular calendar later adopted by the Government of India after independence from British rule.
Shyamasundara Das: The problem that exists between the Vaisnava calendar and the Christian calendar is that the Vaisnava calendar is luni-solar, whereas the Christian calendar is strictly solar. What does this mean? Well, the solar year is This means that after 3 years the lunar calendar will be 1 solar month out of phase with the solar calendar.
The Muslims follow a strictly lunar calendar and thus their months have no relation to the seasons which is a solar event. In the course of 36 years the Muslim month of Ramadan will go through each of the Christian months and then come to its starting point again. The Vaisnava calendar is luni-solar in that the lunar months are always calibrated to correspond with the solar months and fall in the same season every year not taking into account precessional differences.
To achieve this a leap month is added about every third year there are certain astronomical rules involved so it may not be every third year.
That is why you will notice that a big festival like Gaura Purnima will fall on one date this year, then next year about 10 days earlier, and the next year 10 days earlier still then all of a sudden it shoots back up about 30 days and continues the cycle. There are no simple rules to convert a Christian date into a Vaisnava date and vice versa. May I suggest that if someone would like to really understand how to do this that he request Markandeya Rsi Prabhu for a copy of the report to the GBC that he prepared on behalf of the Vaisnava Calendar committee.
Disciples of Satsvarupa dasa Goswami should take note of this. Also in calculating your own birth tithi it is the tithi prevalent at the time of birth that is important, not the tithi at sunrise. Thus Jayapataka Swami's actual birth tithi is Dvadasi, not Ekadasi.
Why the time of sunrise is always mentioned is because the Vedic day begins at sunrise. The Christian day begins at midnight and the Jewish and Muslim day begins at sunset. The standard Vedic calendar starts the month with the first tithi after the new moon, that is the instant after the exact conjunction of the Sun and Moon.
This system is called mukhya candra. For example the new year according to the Siddhantas i. Meaning the first lunar day after the new moon after the Sun has entered into Mesa Aries. It is called Caitra masa because often the Moon would be in Citra naksatra on the full moon of that month. Anyway it is the Vedic standard to consider the month and the year to begin on a sukla pratipat, first tithi after the new moon.
However it is also acceptable to have months based on the full moon, thus the month and year would start on krsna pratipat, the first tithi after the full moon. If you were to examine the chronological systems in vogue in India you will find that almost every state has its own system with various differing rules. There will also be variations within the regions. For example in according to the National Indian calendar the New Year began on Mar 22 which no one observes.
Other states followed some of these or independent systems. I wonder why they say that Divali is the Hindu New Year? The material compiled is arranged systematically. Citations have been inserted in support of stated facts; at places they have been substituted by references. Obsolete and obscure words, denoting objects such as a particular tree or plant have been explained by their scientific or vernacular equivalents. All modern critical apparatus has been utilized in the preparation of this comprehensive work.
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Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. Sort order. Jan 28, Pramod Nair rated it it was amazing Shelves: A must have ready reference resource for both the causal fans and serious students of ancient and amazing Indian Mythology.
This incredible volume will be handy like a magic beacon for easily navigating the vast and intricately cross-referenced maze of Indian Puranic literature.
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