to analyze bone in the context of continuum mechanics the samples have to have the . Skeletal Tissue Mechanics, R. Bruce Martin, David B. Burr, Neil A. Martin R.B., Burr D.B., Sharkey N.A., Fyhrie D.P. Skeletal Tissue Mechanics. Файл формата pdf; размером 10,82 МБ. Добавлен. " a good teaching text, and a useful reference. This reviewer would recommend Skeletal Tissue Mechanics for both the individual and institutional library.
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Knowledge of the mechanical properties of the skeletal system is important in R. Bruce Martin, David B. Burr, Neil A. Sharkey. Pages PDF. not neglect the biological properties of skeletal tissue or require mathematics ; Digitally watermarked, DRM-free; Included format: PDF. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , R. Bruce Martin and others published Skeletal Tissue Mechanics.
Composition[ edit ] The characteristic substances inside the extracellular matrix of this kind of tissue are the collagen , elastin and ground substance. Normally the soft tissue is very hydrated because of the ground substance. The fibroblasts are the most common cell responsible for the production of soft tissues' fibers and ground substance. Variations of fibroblasts, like chondroblasts , may also produce these substances. The collagen fibers are comparatively inextensible and are usually loose wavy, crimped. With increasing tissue deformation the collagen is gradually stretched in the direction of deformation.
Predictions from the model were compared to both experimental data and to predictions of a well established computational mechanobiological model where tissue differentiation is assumed to be regulated directly by the local mechanical environment.
The model predicted all the major events of fracture repair, including cartilaginous bridging, endosteal and periosteal bony bridging and bone remodelling.
It therefore provides support for the hypothesis that substrate stiffness and oxygen play a key role in regulating MSC fate during regenerative events such as fracture healing. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Introduction The analysis of regenerative events such as fracture healing in long bones has led to the development of a number of theories on how the local mechanical environment regulates stem cell differentiation.
Over 50 years ago, Pauwels hypothesised that distortional shear stress is a specific stimulus for collagen fibres and that cartilage formation is induced by a compressive stress stimulus .
Bone formation, it was argued, could only occur after soft tissues had ensured sufficient stabilisation of the callus. Inspired by Pauwels' initial hypothesis, a number of investigators have proposed alternative mechanical stimuli as regulators of stem cell fate.
Using computational tools such as finite element analysis, it has been possible to demonstrate a correlation between the local magnitudes of hydrostatic stress and tensile strain or octahedral stress and the appearance of specific tissue types within a fracture callus  , . A similar regulation mechanism using quantified limits for strain and hydrostatic pressure as stimuli for tissue differentiation has also been proposed .
An alternative theory suggests that tissue differentiation is regulated by a combined stimulus of octahedral shear strain and relative fluid velocity . This model has been shown capable of predicting tissue differentiation during multiple regenerative events such as fracture healing  ,  , osteochondral defect repair  ,  , vertebral fracture repair  , distraction osteogenesis  —  , bone chamber ingrowth  and neoarthrosis formation  ,  , providing strong corroboration for this hypothesis.
In spite of this, understanding the relative importance and predictive ability of various biophysical cues as regulators of stem cell fate is challenging. For example, consideration of only a single mechanical stimulus such as deviatoric strain, volumetric strain or principal strain can lead to reasonably valid predictions of tissue differentiation during fracture repair  , .
An inherent assumption of such hypotheses is that these mechanical signals act directly on mesenchymal stem cells MSCs to regulate their differentiation pathway.
In conjunction, or perhaps alternatively, the local mechanical environment could also act indirectly to regulate MSC differentiation by inhibiting angiogenesis and hence the supply of oxygen and other factors to the wound site.
Such inhibition of angiogenesis can lead to the development of hypoxic regions within a regenerating tissue, which may repress some differentiation pathways while promoting others. In vitro studies have shown severe impairment of adipogenesis and osteogenesis at low oxygen tensions  —  , and a number of in vivo and in silico studies have highlighted the importance of angiogenesis for normal bone repair  — . Updating results WorldCat is the world's largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online.
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