ASTM D pdf - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. Designation: D – 98 (Reapproved ) Standard Test Method for Drop Definitions—General terms for packaging and distribu- ASTM Standards: . Home; ASTM D(). $; Add to Cart. Printed Edition + PDF; Immediate download; $; Add to Cart.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|Genre:||Academic & Education|
|ePub File Size:||30.47 MB|
|PDF File Size:||10.48 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Standard Test Method for. Drop Test of Loaded Containers by Free Fall1. This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the. This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D10 on. ASTM D Standard Test Method for Drop Test of Loaded Containers by Free Fall_专业资料. 人阅读|87次下载. ASTM D
The number of exported JPG files was quite large, so be prepared to have some extra space on your hard drive when processing larger MOV files. If you want to create and share memes with friends, Astm D will get the job done, but it is slow and unresponsive at times. Additional, albeit limited, options exist for adjusting the video output picture, including Astm D like opacity, among a few others. The README file has not been updated for some time so the users can ignore this part as the developer has since made this program free. Astm D for Mac creates an interactive Astm D where all your favorite images, slideshows, and even live Webcam feeds are shown as customizable stickies.
Unless otherwise specified, fiber-board or 5.
If drop leaves are used, the apparatus shall provide 5. Method D Sampling nondeformable under the test conditions. Practice E is recommended. Unless other- wise specified, Practice D shall be used for acceptance NOTE 1—Grout a thin mortar used to fill crevices is recommended testing of fiberboard containers. Neither the depth nor width of the mass shall be less than half 7. Test Specimens the length.
Regardless of which procedure area of 0. Accelerometers or other indicating rupture resistance of cylindrical containers or bags. Unless mechanisms may be installed. Dry equivalent hardness, approximately 4 ft 1. Procedure 9. See Practice D , 9.
Where Acceptance Criteria. Precision and Bias impact, a plane containing this edge and the center of gravity Experience has shown that the observed precision is contents uniformly throughout the bag or sack. The mean drop heights to failure for the three types of packaging were 39, Report mm. The repeatability within laboratory standard deviation ranged from 3 to 10 in.
The 9. The research report suggests that tests of the effect that all tests were conducted in full compliance with some items produce data that are not distributed normally; the requirements of this test method, or noting any variations log-normal, Weilbull, or other distributions may be applicable.
Keywords any; drying and aging time, if any; and tare and gross masses. Request RR:D 9. If the package has one or more side meet. Where it is tion of the members tops, bottoms, sidewalls, and chimes of desirable to drop on a midpoint between two locations on the cylindrical containers shall be as follows see Fig. Where it is axis passing through these points respectively shall be desig- desirable to drop on a midpoint between two locations on the sidewall, such a point can be designated using four numbers, that is, drop on Where it is tion of the members tops, bottoms, sidewalls, and chimes of desirable to drop on a midpoint between two locations on the cylindrical containers shall be as follows see Fig.
Where it is axis passing through these points respectively shall be desig- desirable to drop on a midpoint between two locations on the sidewall, such a point can be designated using four numbers, that is, drop on Where a bag or sack has one or more side seams, Side 2 shall FIG.
Sometimes the drop Drop the test package once on each half of the top and bottom height, test cycles, and detailed procedures are prescribed in a rims. Other times a A2. The drop cylinder. Continue dropping on similar the type and severity of drop needed to cause certain types of cycles until a specified type of damage is noted to the package damage to the package or contents, or previous testing or field or contents.
This procedure determines the number of drops or experience with similar packages. The test plan should also cycles required to damage the package or contents. The determination of the critical height to failure; the number of drops to failure, etc.
It may be a formal study of the relationship between drop orientation and damage, other engi- A2. Typical types of chosen to be unlikely to cause predefined damage to the drop cycles are as follows: package or contents. This will be in a prescibed orientation or A2.
If no damage occurs from the tation and height specified. Repeat the drop or drop cycle on the same package a bottom corner for example, , the shortest edge until the predefined damage has occurred.
Replicate samples should be A2. A normal distribution cannot be assumed longest edge radiating from that corner, and the longest edge for statistical analysis; a log-normal or Weilbull distribution are radiating from that corner. Sometimes a single drop or drop cycle from a height which caused cumu- A2.
This must be based on n, the number of passes or cannot be used because of the effects of cumulative damage. S D This procedure varies the drop height for each drop or cycle but St 2 with a new test specimen for each.
The number of test S 5 1. It is best to choose an odd number of test failure, specimens.
If this specimen passes at this drop A2. If it fails, the next test will be a lower drop height. The drop height increment is a constant and normal distributions see Test Methods D and E If 6 Dixon, W. Experiments, McGraw Hill, , pp.
Researchers are not restricted to the use of published standards but can modify existing test methods or develop procedures specific to their particular needs. If a test is conducted with a deviation from a published test method or if a new method is employed, the test report must fully disclose the procedure. Materials testing[ edit ] Materials and components are often evaluated on a universal testing machine The basis of packaging design and performance is the component materials.
The physical properties , and sometimes chemical properties , of the materials need to be communicated to packaging engineers to aid in the design process. Suppliers publish data sheets and other technical communications that include the typical or average relevant physical properties and the test method these are based upon. Sometimes these are adequate.
Other times, additional material and component testing is required by the packager or supplier to better define certain characteristics. When a final package design is complete, the specifications for the component materials needs to be communicated to suppliers. Packaging materials testing is often needed to identify the critical material characteristics and engineering tolerances.
These are used to prepare and enforce specifications. For example, shrink film data might include: tensile strength MD and CD , elongation , Elastic modulus , surface energy , thickness, Moisture vapor transmission rate , Oxygen transmission rate , heat seal strength, heat sealing conditions, heat shrinking conditions, etc.
Average and process capability are often provided. The chemical properties related for use as Food contact materials may be necessary.
Testing with people[ edit ] Some types of package testing do not use scientific instruments but use people for the evaluation. The regulations for child-resistant packaging require a test protocol that involves children. Samples of the test packages are given to a prescribed population of children. With specified child panels, a high percentage must be unable to open a test package within 5 minutes. Consumer packages are often evaluated by focus groups.
People evaluate the package features in a room monitored by video cameras. The consumer responses are treated qualitatively for feedback into the new packaging process. Some food packagers use organoleptic evaluations.
People use their senses taste, smell, etc.