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Communication Systems. ▫ Basic components: ▫ Transmitter. ▫ Channel or medium. ▫ Receiver. ▫ Noise degrades or interferes with transmitted information. Notes for, BE and Diploma in Electronics and Communication Engineering Basic Electronics, Download Basic Electronics-1 Notes · Download Basics. ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION EC09 (P) Digital Electronics Lab .. To expose the students to the basic concepts of electric circuits and their.

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In the crystalline lattice structure of Si, the valence electrons of every Si atom are locked up in covalent bonds with the valence electrons of four neighboring Si. Basics of Electrical,. Electronics and. Communication Engineering. K. A. NAVAS. tvnovellas.infosor in ECE. Govt. Engineering College. Thrissur The information contained within this Basic Electronics Tutorials guide is provided "as-is" and free of and electronic circuits and soldering irons. Thank you and.

What is Electronic? The study and use of electrical devices that operate by controlling the flow of electrons or other electrically charged particles. What is communication? Communication means transferring a signal from the transmitter which passes through a medium then the output is obtained at the receiver. ECE Interview Questions 4. Different types of communications? Analog and digital communication.

This may involve the design of new computer hardware , the design of PDAs or the use of computers to control an industrial plant.

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Development of embedded systems —systems made for specific tasks e. This field includes the micro controller and its applications. Computer engineers may also work on a system's software. However, the design of complex software systems is often the domain of software engineering , which is usually considered a separate discipline. It deals with fabrication of ICs and various electronic components. Education and training[ edit ] Main article: Education and training of electrical and electronics engineers Electronics engineers typically possess an academic degree with a major in electronic engineering.

The length of study for such a degree is usually three or four years and the completed degree may be designated as a Bachelor of Engineering , Bachelor of Science , Bachelor of Applied Science , or Bachelor of Technology depending upon the university.

Some electronics engineers also choose to pursue a postgraduate degree such as a Master of Science , Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering, or an Engineering Doctorate. The master's degree is being introduced in some European and American Universities as a first degree and the differentiation of an engineer with graduate and postgraduate studies is often difficult.

In these cases, experience is taken into account. The master's degree may consist of either research, coursework or a mixture of the two. The Doctor of Philosophy consists of a significant research component and is often viewed as the entry point to academia. In most countries, a bachelor's degree in engineering represents the first step towards certification and the degree program itself is certified by a professional body.

Certification allows engineers to legally sign off on plans for projects affecting public safety.

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A degree in electronics generally includes units covering physics , chemistry , mathematics , project management and specific topics in electrical engineering. Initially, such topics cover most, if not all, of the subfields of electronic engineering.

Students then choose to specialize in one or more subfields towards the end of the degree. Fundamental to the discipline are the sciences of physics and mathematics as these help to obtain both a qualitative and quantitative description of how such systems will work.

Today most engineering work involves the use of computers and it is commonplace to use computer-aided design and simulation software programs when designing electronic systems. Although most electronic engineers will understand basic circuit theory, the theories employed by engineers generally depend upon the work they do.

For example, quantum mechanics and solid state physics might be relevant to an engineer working on VLSI but are largely irrelevant to engineers working with embedded systems. Apart from electromagnetics and network theory, other items in the syllabus are particular to electronics engineering course.

The basic difference lies in the Multiplexing method used in the aerial communication i. CDMA uses Code Division Multiple Access as the name itself indicates, for example you are in a hall occupied with number of people speaking different language. You will find that the one language you know will be heard by you and the others will be treated like noise. TDMA works by dividing a radio frequency into time slots and then allocating slots to multiple calls. In this way, a single frequency can support multiple, simultaneous data channels.

What is an Amplifier? An electronic device or electrical circuit that is used to boost amplify the power, voltage or current of an applied signal. What is Barkhausen criteria?

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Barkhausen criteria, without which you will not know which conditions, are to be satisfied for oscillations. Explain Full duplex and half duplex. Full duplex refers to the transmission of data in two directions simultaneously. For example, a telephone is a full-duplex devicebecause both parties can talk at once. In contrast, a walkie-talkie is ahalf-duplex device because only one party can transmit at a time.

Most modems have a switch that lets you choose between full-duplex and half-duplex modes. The choice depends on whichcommunications program you are running. In full-duplex mode, data you transmit does not appear on yourscreen until it has been received and sent back by the other party. This enables you to validate that the data has been accurately transmitted. If your display screen shows two of each character, it probably means that your modem is set to half-duplex mode when it should be in full-duplex mode.

What is a feedback? And explain different types of feedback. Feedback is a process whereby some proportion of the output signal of a system is passed fed back to the input.

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This is often used to control the dynamic behaviour of the system. Types of feedback: Negative feedback: This tends to reduce output but in amplifiers, stabilizes and linearizes operation.

Positive feedback: This tends to increase output. In contrast, a system that responds to the perturbation in the opposite direction is called a negative feedback system.

Zener diode solved numericals-Basic Electronics Engineering

Bipolar feedback: which can either increase or decrease output. Advantages of negative feedback over positive feedback. Much attention has been given by researchers to negative feedback processes, because negative feedback processes lead systems towards equilibrium states. Positive feedback reinforces a given tendency of a system and can lead a system away from equilibrium states, possibly causing quite unexpected results.

Example for negative feedback and positive feedback. What is Oscillator? An oscillator is a circuit that creates a waveform output from a direct current input. The two main types of oscillator are harmonic and relaxation. The harmonic oscillators have smooth curved waveforms, while relaxation oscillators have waveforms with sharp changes. What is a transducer and transponder? A transducer is a device, usually electrical, electronic, electro-mechanical, electromagnetic, photonic, or photovoltaic that converts one type of energy or physical attribute to another for various purposes including measurement or information transfer.

An automatic device that transmits a predetermined messagein response to a predefined received signal. A receiver-transmitter that will generate a reply signal upon proper electronic interrogation. What is an Integrated Circuit? An integrated circuit IC , also called a microchip, is an electronic circuit etched onto a silicon chip. Their main advantages are low cost, low power, high performance, and very small size. What is crosstalk? Crosstalk is a form of interference caused by signals in nearby conductors.

The most common example is hearing an unwanted conversation on the telephone.

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Crosstalk can also occur in radios, televisions, networking equipment, and even electric guitars. What is a rectifier? A rectifier changes alternating current into direct current. This process is called rectification. The three main types of rectifier are the half-wave, full-wave, and bridge. A rectifier is the opposite of an inverter, which changes direct current into alternating current.

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HWR- The simplest type is the half-wave rectifier, which can be made with just one diode. When the voltage of the alternating current is positive, the diode becomes forward-biased and current flows through it. When the voltage is negative, the diode is reverse-biased and the current stops.

The result is a clipped copy of the alternating current waveform with only positive voltage, and an average voltage that is one third of the peak input voltage. This pulsating direct current is adequate for some components, but others require a more steady current.

This requires a full-wave rectifier that can convert both parts of the cycle to positive voltage. FWR- The full-wave rectifier is essentially two half-wave rectifiers, and can be made with two diodes and an earthed centre tap on the transformer. The positive voltage half of the cycle flows through one diode, and the negative half flows through the other.

The centre tap allows the circuit to be completed because current cannot flow through the other diode. Electronics and Communication Engineering Free ebooks, Download Free Electronics and Communication Engineering textbooks, Books, lecture notes and presentations covering subject-wise full semester syllabus.

You can freely download any Electronics and Communication Engineering pdf of your choice any time at free of cost. Notes for B. Download Analogue Communication Techniques Notes.

Download Analogue Electronics Circuits Notes. Download Antenna Engineering Notes. Download Combinational Logic Notes.