tvnovellas.info - Download as PDF File .pdf) or read online. Manu, the original lawgiver of the Aryan race, is said in the Narada Smriti to have composed a. Dharmashastra in. , shlokas, arranged in. chapters. Íaiva Dharma Íâstras, The Book of Discipline of Íaiva Siddhânta Church may be used to share the Hindu Dharma with others on the spiritual path, but.
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The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters VIII - XIV · The Vashishta The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaI (Kandika ) · The Baudhayana. Feb 9, of the Dharma System', Journal of the American Oriental Society,. – .. fined to the ritually based vedic branches, Dharma came to. t is a little over ten years since the first volume of my History of Dharma Śāstra was purview of Dharma Śāstra would present only a scrappy and faint outline of.
Sastras prescribe forty samskaras purificatory rites for rendering the three human bodies, the sthula, sukshma and karana gross, subtle and causal , pure and fit for redemption by God's grace. Apara kriyas post death ceremonies and Sradham performed for one's parents are some of the most essential samskaras. Death is ever hovering; Dharma virtue alone should be accumulated. Depending on Yama Dharmaraja's verdict on the basis of his karmic load, the jiva is left to enjoy the pleasures of swarga, suffer the misery of naraka or is born into fresh bodies on the earth- man, animal, bird, worm, tree, grass etc. Here the Apara kriya and sraadham performed by his son play a very helpful and positive role.
Nanakrandapuri: As the name indicates, this place is full of cries of distress of Pretas. The frightened jiva weeps inconsolably. The eighth month Masikam offering is fed now to him. Sutapta bhavan: Here the jiva experiences extreme heat. The ninth month Masikam offering reaches him now. Roudra nagar: Further terrible experiences await the jiva here. He takes the tenth month Masikam offering.
Payovarshan: Torrential rain and hailstorm are the features of this place. The jiva takes the eleventh month Masikam offering. Sithadhyapuri: The jiva reaches here after eleven and a half months. He is exposed now to extreme cold.
He also experiences severe hunger. Bahudharma bhitipuri: In this last city, there are twelve devatas called Sravanas. They are the powerful sons of Brahma and they report all the good and bad actions of the jiva to Yamaraj and Chitragupta.
Dasa ten items danams on the twelfth day are considered very important. The ten items in Dasa danam are: cow, land, til, gold, ghee, clothes, grains, jaggery, silver and salt. In addition Deepa lamp , Nouka boat , saiya bed , kambala blanket , chatra umbrella , chappal padaraksha etc. If danams are not given, the Yamabhatas taunt the jiva saying that no help has come from the karta to mitigate his suffering.
It is necessary for the Karta to perform Sandhyavandanam during all the impure Asoucha days of Apara Kriya. Unlike Deva Puja, Sandhyavandanam is Nitya karma, not to be missed. When the karta sits for Sandhyavandanam and performs achamanam, the asoucha impurity leaves him temporarily and returns at the close of the thrice-daily ritual. Sodakumbha sraadham is performed on the twelfth day after completing Sapindikaranam. A kumbha filled with water is gifted.
Cocunut water is also given. Sastras prescribe that this should be performed every day for the whole year. It is nowadays the practice to perform this every month on the day previous to Anumasika sraadham. Auspiciousness is welcomed back.
Udakasanthi, Navagraha homam etc. The family prays at the temple in the evening on this day. Grihayagnam is performed again on the day after the Abdika first annual sradham.
They expect their hunger and thirst to be relieved by offerings of food, water and clothes by the son by way of sradham on all these occasions. The pinda, til and water offered in remembrance and food and clothes given to the appointed Brahmanas in the sradham are transformed by Agni and Pitrudevatas like Agnishvatta into items suitable for consumption of the Pitrus and sent to them wherever they are and in whichever bodies they might be living.
If sradham is not performed by the son, the disappointed Pitrus curse generations of descendants. These curses have strong adverse effects on progeny, marriage, education, employment etc.
Sastras count 96 occasions of such visits by Pitrus in a year, which means that 96 sradhams are to be performed. Mahalaya sradham is performed by some in a partial form.
On Amavasya days and on the first days of the months ie. Tarpanam is also considered as simplified and abbreviated sraadham. He did not marry. He was roaming around like a vanaprastha. He became a true Gnani, no doubt. One day Pitrus of his lineage met him on the way. They asked him to marry and produce sons and rid himself of Pitru-debt.
Ruchi engaged in a long debate with them. He expatiated on the dangers of downfall for one who is attached to his family. The Pitrus finally told him that he would only go to hell after his death and undergo great suffering on account of the sin he is committing by way of neglect of Pitrus.
Now Ruchi felt that none would offer him a girl in marriage.
He decided to please Brahma. After penance lasting a hundred years, Brahma appeared and expressed his complete concurrence with the advice tendered by the Pitrus.
He asked Ruchi to worship Pitrus themselves for blessing him with a suitable girl for marriage. Brahma blessed that Ruchi would become a Prajapati. Ruchi made ceremonial offerings to Pitrus in a river and sang the praise of Pitrus. His Pitru-stotras appearing in Garuda Purana have unparalleled beauty and are greatly devotional and elevating.
The Pitrus appeared and happily blessed that he would immediately marry a beautiful girl and become a Prajapati. An Apsara named Pramlocha approached Ruchi with marriage proposal for her daughter Manini. Ruchi married Manini. His son Rouchya became a Manu and was responsible for spread of human race in his manvantara. Pitrus' blessings and curses are indeed extremely powerful. Sage Jaratkaru's story is better known.
Like Ruchi, he also was a Gnani who abhorred marriage. One day he happened to see his ancestors shouting with pain from inside a well. On enquiry, the Pitrus informed him that someone called Jaratkaru in their family, who did not marry, was responsible for their piteous plight. Jaratkaru was shocked. He argued with the Pitrus about the dangers of marriage. But when he was convinced that marriage was necessary for the redemption of the Pitrus, he agreed.
He laid down a strange condition that his wife-to-be should also bear the same name as his, ie. Devi fulfilled that condition also. Manasa Devi, amsa of Parasakthi, herself became Jaratkaru and married him. Their son was Sage Astika, who later stopped king Janamejaya from mass killing of innocent snakes in the Sarpayagna organised by the king in revenge for serpent Takshaka biting his father Parikshit to death.
After death, on their death anniversary, sraadham with offering of lots of food should be performed. At least once in lifetime, Sraadham Pinda danam should be performed in Gaya. These three actions alone make a son worthy of being called a true son. Somadeva Sarma Translated by P.
Anatha Narayanan. I am sure this book would be very much useful to all Brahmins to know the correct Acharas. Somadeva Sarma: Achara rituals are only Dharma. The Acharas followed by holy people is Sadachara and Aacharas followed by eminent followers of the religion is Sishtachara.
Though we generally tell Achara as Dharma, the rules which help practice Dharma is Sadachara. In some places Dharma is the dress and Achara are the limbs. For example, performing Sandhyavandana is a Dharma, but performing it after taking bath, after marking the forehead with sacred marks and wearing a Panchakacha is the aacharas. Even Vedas do not support a person who does not have aacharas.
By following Achara we can get a long span of life and also become prosperous. Many Dharma Sasthras say that Dharma is born out of aacharas and anyone who leaves aacharas has a very short span of life.
Karma or Dharma is a medicine that removes sins. Achara is the discipline that we have to follow in taking the medicine. When you do not follow the disciplines, in spite of taking medicine, the disease is not cured. Sometimes even the discipline only cures the diseases. One Purana says that a hunter who only followed Achara got a Brahmin birth.
Any religious deed without following the aacharas does not give results. The Sun should not be seen while rising, setting or at noon. It should not be seen during eclipse or in water 2. Dhileepa, who went round a cow in an anti-clock wise direction, did not get a child. We should not blow air with our mouth on fire.
We should not cross fire with our feet and we should not touch it with hand. We should not put out fire by pouring water on it. We should not dry our feet by showing our feet to the fire. When we reach the sacred waters, we should not keep our feet on it first. We should take the water first and sprinkle on our head and then only wash our feet. We should not spit on water. We should not bathe without cloth in sacred waters.
We should not do ablations in sacred water. We should take water in a vessel and do ablations. We should not put a stone in a lake or pond. Bhima who kept his feet first in sacred waters suffered.
Cooking food only for ourselves, making garland out of flower for our use and cooking kheer Payasam are all sinful activities. We should first offer everything to god and guests and take it ourselves.
Before going to bed, we have to wash our feet, dry it with a cloth, meditate on God and then only go to sleep. We should not sleep with our head pointing to northern direction. We should not sleep on a broken cot. We should not sleep in a dilapidated house; we should not wake up a person who is sleeping. Waking up elderly people is a great sin. While we sleep, all our sense organs are within our mind.
If we wake up a person in half sleep, the organs instead of returning to proper places may go to places of other organs. Because of this a person can become blind or deaf. Periods of a woman are a penance for Brahma Hathi. We should not go near them during those three days. While we are eating, we should not hear their voice.
We should not use water and food after they have used it. On fourth day after bath, if she cooks by going near fire, she would get sick. The one who eats the food she prepares would get tainted. She would get pure only on fifth day. All gods reside on a cow. Going round it in clock wise direction, comforting it, offering grass, rice bran, water and oil cake to it are blessed deeds.
We would be blessed with children because of that. Kicking a cow with leg, hitting it with a stick, eating food without feeding it, informing the owner when it grazes in his field are sins. We would be born as an out caste by doing any of these. Once, a Brahmin threw away food as the dust raised by cow's feet fell on it.
Due to it, he was born as an out caste called Kaisika, By serving a cow, King Dileepa got a great son called Raghu. We should try to protect the cow as much as possible. At least we should not trouble it. We should not use cloths, slipper, garland, water pot, seat and bed that were used by others.
It would be a sin and bring diseases. The smoke from a corpse, early sun light, shadow of a lamp, shadow of a human being and shadow of an out caste should not fall on us. It would cause health problems and reduce our life span. Nails and hair are like the lifeless feather on our body. We should not cut our hair or shave ourselves.
Our forefathers used to see proper Nakshatra and thithi. It is essential to see thithi only. If we do shaving on Chathurthi day, our mother will be affected and doing it in Chathurdasi would lead to bad effects to the sister; Sashti is not good to brother; Amavasya, Pournami, Ekadasi and Dwadasi are not good to father. Doing it in Prathma would lead to loss of Wealth, doing it on Navami would cause loss of grains, on Ashtami it would destroy our family.
We should not get it done on Tuesdays, Fridays and Saturdays. After the death taint of a clan member, we should cut our hair and do Tharpana.
If that day falls on a Friday, shaving can be done on Thursday itself.
During taint and before the annual death ceremony Sradham , it is essential to shave off all hairs of our body. We should not nip our nails. If we do it, immediately we have to take a bath.
You should not draw a line on floor using the nail. You should throw the cut nails outside our house. We should not bite the nails with our teeth. Moodhevi Jyeshta Devi says that such persons are the place of her personal residence.
We should not nip grass, durba or flower with our nails. Nails should not touch the water that we are drinking. Introducing finger to see whether water is hot is wrong. We should pour water in our hands and test it.
If we sprinkle water using nails on other person, our nail would get infected. Nakha chuthi. We should not nip the banana fruit with nail before offering it to God. We would remove the skin at the tip of our fingers. We should not remove sandal paste meant for God by using the nail. We should do it by our inner finger. Without reason, we should not powder mud balls, tiles and bricks.
We should not wear a flower which has not been offered to God. We should not wear it in such a way that it is visible outside our hair. If those, who do not comb their hair, tie flowers with hair, the scent of the flower will not go out. Ladies should not wear flowers without scent.
We should not stamp used flowers with our feet. We should not travel in a cart drawn by a single bullock. If we go on a pilgrimage on such a cart, it would even destroy the blessed deeds which we have done earlier. Single bullock is the steed of Lord Shiva. The Goddess of Dharma assumes the form of a single bullock and carries Lord Shiva. Climbing on a single bullock or travelling in a cart being drawn by it is an insult to Dharma.
We should never enter our village or house through back door or entry point. We should always go by the front door. Dakshayani Lord Shiva's wife entered Daksha's house by the back door and she destroyed herself as well as the yaga. At night, we should not stay below a tree. If pregnant woman sleeps there, her pregnancy would get affected. At night, birds stay on the tree and their poop may fall on us. At night ghosts and devils approach the trees. Also trees leave out carbon dioxide at night.
So we may get sick. It has been told that in Kali age after years, the ghosts are but the diseases. We should not gamble. Playing cards with money wager is gambling. Even Yudhishtra, who knew all Dharmas, lost everything due to gambling.
Since gambling leads to lie, avarice and treachery, it is one of those great sins. Crossing a river swimming with hand and leg is a sin. Our Sasthras want to protect us. Lot of dangers may happen, when we cross the river due to nature's fury. So cross the river in a boat and as soon as you reach the other shore, do Aachamana.
This is to expatiate ourselves from the sin of crossing the river. Please do not tell about Dharma or penance without request from others. It definitely should not be told to people who are lower in birth status than us. Food should only be given to hungry people.
If we tell Dharma to people who do not want it, they will not believe in it.
So initially create a desire to hear Dharma in them and after their request teach them. We should not stamp by our feet the shadow of God's idol, Guru, Father, mother, elders and cow. We should not cross their shadows also.
We should not stamp the shadows of sinners also nor cross it. We believe that a little of a person's power is there on his shadow also. So stamping or crossing would be disrespecting them. Ravana tried to cross Kailasa Mountain and got in to trouble. We should always tell the truth. If that truth is going to hurt others, we should tell even that truth. We should not tell a lie to please another man. Once, a hunter was chasing a boar.
In the path there was a sage who always told the truth. The hunter asked him which way the boar went. Instead of telling a lie or causing hurt to the boar, that sage told, "Would the people who see tell? Is the man who tells, the one who has seen it?
We should not call any one as a sinner. If he had not committed a sin, the bad effect of committing the sin would reach the man who called him a sinner, suppose he has done the sin, half of its bad effect will come and reach us. Three brothers were going separately on celestial vehicles to heaven. All the three of them saw a Garuda killing a serpent.
The first one said it is a sin. His vehicle fell down on earth. The second one told Garuda "please kill". His vehicle also fell down. The third one kept silent and reached heaven. We should never doubt about existence of God, Heavens, Effect of Karma, Re-birth and Hell because Vedas confirm that they exist and sages much greater than us support that assumption.
Once when sage Brugu told a king called Somakatha about his previous birth, he doubted about it. Immediately Soma Kantha was in great pain and he saluted the sage and got his pardon. In Vedanta Spiritual Library www. Yama replied, "I am the one who takes away the soul after death. I am the one who determines about the quantum of punishment to them and I send them back to this earth to be born again.
So believe, believe and believe. A householder should not grow hair, beard and nails for more than one month. But after the death of his parents, he should not cut them for one year. He should not also cut them when his wife is in the family way. Fearing that the beggar will come, we should not close the main door during the morning and evening. Finding fault of Gods, Vedas and elders should not be done. When Brahma found fault with Shiva, Veerabhadra punished him by nipping off one of his heads.
Once when devas requested Lord Vishnu to talk ill of Lord Shiva, he refused. It is also wrong to find fault with those who worship God. A lamp should not be put out by blowing air by the mouth. A male should never put off a lamp. We should not see our shadow in water or oil. We should not gnash our teeth making sound. This is a symbol of a Rakshasa. When we yawn, we should cover the mouth with our hand. Yawn is the messenger to disease, laziness and sleep.
At that time, the bad air in our body escapes through our mouth. Suppose this air touches others, they would become sick. If the shadow of a lamp, shadow of human beings, water from cloth, water from our hair, the dust raised by a goat, dust raised by donkey, dust raised by ladies, the air made by a winnow, the dust that comes up while sweeping falls on our body, even if we have wealth equal to Indra it would be lost. They would take away the effect of good deeds done by us.
Man should not take food in the row of females or children. They should not take food sitting in the same row as their wives. But they can do so, after the marriage ceremony or during travel. Only if we take clean food, our mind would be clean. The cook, the people who eat and those who serve it should all be clean. We should not sleep during day time. We should not make love during day time. Milk should not be drunk during day time.
After noon, we should not go round that Peepal tree. Jyeshta Devi Moodhevi lives with people who do wear cloth, who do not wear Pancha Kacham or only wear loin cloth. So except during times of need, we should wear Pancha Kacham. In North India even children are habituated to wear this. They should not be seen during performance of any ritual. If we happen to see them, we have to take bath along with the dress we wear.
The edges of a cloth should not hang while we wear the Kacha. Through that our strength will go away. Even Muslims wear cloth without the edge hanging about. Our forefathers wore silk dress with borders. Silk protects the power of our soul. There is no good effect of doing a ritual without wearing Kacha. We should not wash our Dhothi at night. We should not sweep the floor at night nor throw trash outside our home. At night we should not stay in the shadow of any tree. We should not dig or plough earth at night.
We should not talk about secrets at night. We should not enter in between cows or in between the Brahmins, between fire and a Brahmin, in between husband and wife, in between teacher and student, In between brothers or sisters or in between children. If we go in between Nandi and Shiva, Shiva and Parvathi, Lord Vishnu and Garuda or Vishnu and his consorts, the effect of all good deeds done by us earlier will be lost.
If we go round them in clock wise direction, we would get good effect. If we stub against a stone while walking, then we should take some mud from that place and wear it on our forehead.
That is called Muruthika and it will protect us from wicked spirits. Those who have father or elder brother should not wear a ring made of silver called Tharjani in our pointer finger. Others can wear it. That finger is supposed to be defiled because Lord Shiva nipped a head of Brahma by that finger.
For worship or Tharpana, the pointer finger should not be used. Silver represents Rudra and if we wear silver on that finger and touch other fingers with that finger, the others would not be defiled. On Sapthami day we have to chant 37 times and on Amavasya, Pournavasya, and Prathama 26 times. Daily in the mornings, we have to chant Gayathri times. Gayathri should be chanted after the hands are covered by a cloth and kept in front of us.
When we get death or birth taint, we should chant Gayathri ten times. Even if the sacred threads are not broken, it should be changed once in four months. When thread is cut or when the taint comes and goes away and in Sravana, we have to wear a new sacred thread. If we happen to touch a sinner, bad person, barber or ladies in periods, we have to take bath and change the sacred thread.
On Ashtami, Chathurthi, Amavasya new moon , Pournavasya full moon , Sankramana first of a month , First of a year Manvathi or Yugadhi , Previous day of Sradha and on the last day of the taint, we should not take food at night. People who are above eight years of age or below 80 years should not take any food on Ekadasi day. Those who are sick or weak can take milk and fruits for one time.
Those who are not able to live that way can take boiled rice along with water but without any spices or vegetables for one time. There is no parihara redemption for taking food on Ekadasi day.
It is a great sin. Even if Ekadasi comes during taint, we should not take food. The penance of Ekadasi would give pleasures in life on earth and later in salvation. Those answering calls of nature at night, it is necessary for them to wash their legs and hands, it is not necessary to do Aachamana. Except on the days of eclipse, we should not take bath at mid of the night.
Numerous ideas about the nature and destiny of human life began to challenge outmoded religious notions. Below are the elaboration of political ideas of great thinkers of ancient and modern times: Dharamshastra: Although, the theoretical text of Arthasastra initiated inductive reasoning and a greater realism into political thought, the Dharma Sastras are basically deductive in nature. The shastras in Sanskrit Hindu literature are the texts of spiritual and legal duty. Shastra factually means "rule, command, code of laws, science," and these works focus on many different subjects, including the three principal goals for human beings: dharma law , artha wealth, profit, business, or property , and kama passion, desire, pleasure.
The Dharmashastra is related to dharma. It is a concept that integrates the nature of the world, eternal or cosmic law, and social law, applied to rituals and life-cycle rites, procedures for resolving disputes, and penalties for defilements of these rules.
Dharmasastra is a genus of Sanskrit texts, and refers to the treatises shastras of Hinduism on Dharma. The Dharmashastras are the ancient law books of Hindus, which advocate moral laws and principles for devout duty and righteous conduct for the followers of the faith.
They also shaped the guidelines for their social and religious code of conduct Hindus in the past where Hindu monarchs enforced the laws as part of their religious duty. However, looking to the heterogeneity and complex nature of Indian society from the earlier times, it is difficult to state how seriously these laws were imposed by the ruling classes among all sections of society.
However, the Dharmashastras highlighted upon the social and religious conditions of ancient India, family life, gender and caste based distinctions, and principles of ancient jurisprudence. It can be find in them rudiments of many principles and practices of social and religious aspects of modern Hindu civilisation. Origin of Dharma Sutras: A Sutra is a style of writing treatise by utilizing the fewest possible words to ensure brevity and easy memorization.
They contain minute rules for the performance of various ceremonies samskaras marking every important epoch of an individual's life from conception to cremation. In them we see the beginning of civil and criminal law.
Historical review: The shastras, including the Dharmashastra, are categorized as smriti, a word indicating "what is remembered," as distinct from the Vedas and the Upanishads which are shruti, "what is heard. Chronologically, the sutras of the Dharmahshastra follow sometime after the Vedic period, but these works have been extremely difficult to date. Most researchers agree that the first three sutras from which selections are included in this volume, Gautama, Apastamba, and Vasishtha, fall sometime between the 6th century B.
From the time of their composition, the works of the Dharmashastra had vital role in influencing Hindu culture and law. In fact, the shastras were still being cited in cases of legal contracts as late as the midth century in some regions of India. The Dharma-shastras asserted to be divine in origin and to have been transmitted by ancient saints who cannot be recognized as historical figures. In the Satapatha Brahmana of around BCE, Manu is evidently the father of mankind when he follows the advice of a fish and builds a ship in which he alone among men survives the great flood.
Afterwards, he worships and performs penance and a woman, Ida or Ila, is produced and he starts mankind with her. Manu was also the first king and the first to spark the sacrificial fire. As the inventor of social and moral order, he is the rishi who discloses the most authoritative of the Dharma-shastras. Manu's text, the Manusmrti or Manava Dharma-shastra is the earliest of the Dharma-shastras. It probably reached its present form around the second century CE.
In the section of the text on rajadharma, the king's dharma, there are passages on Hindu law. It was these passages which were first noted by Western scholars and so the text became known as the Laws of Manu.
The Manusmrti gives importance to the ruling groups of invading peoples such as the Sakas, Pahlavas, and the Greeks, who were called the Yavanas. In this, the Manusmrti was cooperative with the new social realities to the theoretical pattern.
Yavanas, Sakas, Pahlavas and other foreign trespassers are described by Manu as lapsed ksatriyas, of the warrior class. These warriors had lost their status for not following dharma, but by performing appropriate expiatory sacrifices and acknowledging the brahmans as religious leaders they could come into the fold of the orthodox community. During fourth century CE, the writing of mature Dharma-shastras was fully thriving. In this period, the rules of caste were being systematically enforced by brahmanical dynasties for the first time after centuries of foreign rule.
There were other aspects of Manu's text which brought theory with actual practice and social reality. In his theory of mixed castes, he developed a system of combination between the four classes varnas , producing the many castes jati. Already occupational groups or guilds had set up closed patterns of endogamy characteristic of a jati, so Manu was fitting his theory to the facts.
It is debated whether the Dharma-shastras highlighted an ideal picture that did not correspond to real life. However, the Dharma-shastras, though stylised and systematised, were collections of existing customs and practices that provided the overall theoretical framework for everyone to practise their traditionally recognised ways of life.
Explorations in Ancient Indian Culture and Religion. Gavin Flood, ed. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Abhinav Publications. Buxbaum Family Law and Customary Law in Asia: A Contemporary Legal Perspective. Theories of the Gift in South Asia: Legal and Constitutional History of India: Ancient legal, judicial, and constitutional system.
Universal Law Publishing. Education Society's Press. History of Indian Literature. Davis, Jr , pp. Thinking Ritually: De Nobili, Vienna. Tagore Law Lectures of Calcutta: Thacker, Spink, An Introduction Editors: Modern Asian Studies. Zaidi New Delhi, , —1. Overlapping Domains in Brahmanical Law". Indologica Taurinensia. Religion and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment. Indiana University Press. Authority control NDL: Retrieved from " https: Hindu law Hindu texts Ancient Indian law Religious law.
Part of a series on. Shruti Smriti. Other scriptures Bhagavad Gita Agamas. Itihasa Ramayana Mahabharata. Timeline Chronology of Hindu texts.