Jones & Bartlett Learning books and products are available through most Health Economics, Second Edition is an independent publication. Health Economics Information Resources: A Self-Study Course .. creating subject headings for a book, article, etc. for a Full text in PDF format. PDF | On Sep 30, , Matthew Jowett and others published Principles of Health Economics book less accessible to non-economists, one.
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Jones, A.M., , The Elgar Companion to Health Economics,. Cheltenham . generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output The ”Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such . a health economics textbook, which stated that 'our starting text is Expect_Birth_UK_–93_–pdf (accessed 26 February ). Most books in the field emphasize only on some detailed and specific aspects of health economics. The objective of updating this lecture note is, therefore.
Principles of health economics for developing countries English Abstract Health indicators in developing countries have shown impressive improvements in the past 50 years. But the health status of individuals in these countries remains well below its potential level, and many people lack access to suitable health care and But the health status of individuals in these countries remains well below its potential level, and many people lack access to suitable health care and health-promoting services. This book attempts to provide a suitable economic framework that will foster an understanding of the allocation of broadly defined health care resources, and to aid the design and analysis of policies that affect health outcomes. It addressed both positive and normative issues in the economics of health, and in this sense is similar in approach, if not in scope, to public finance texts.
Call Number: RA Its language is a diverse and broad-based concept covering many other industries: accounting, insurance, mathematics and statistics, public health, provider recruitment and retention, Medicare, health policy, forecasting, aging and long-term care, are all commingled arenas The Dictionary of Health Economics and Finance will be an essential tool for doctors, nurses and clinicians, benefits managers, executives and health care administrators, as well as graduate students and patients With more than 5, definitions, 3, abbreviations and acronyms, and a 2, item oeuvre of resources, readings, and nomenclature derivatives it covers the financial and economics language of every health care industry sector.
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Encyclopedia of Health Care Management Call Number: eBook only This Encyclopedia of Health Care Management is intended to help users understand the business and management issues in the health care industry. Given such a large industry with so many different issues, there are about keywords defined in this volume. The keywords are classified into 16 general categories.
Many states have created risk pools in which relatively healthy enrollees subsidise the care of the rest. Insurers must cope with adverse selection which occurs when they are unable to fully predict the medical expenses of enrollees; adverse selection can destroy the risk pool.
Features of insurance market risk pools, such as group downloads, preferential selection "cherry-picking" , and preexisting condition exclusions are meant to cope with adverse selection. Insured patients are naturally less concerned about healthcare costs than they would if they paid the full price of care. Insurers use several techniques to limit the costs of moral hazard, including imposing copayments on patients and limiting physician incentives to provide costly care. Insurers often compete by their choice of service offerings, cost sharing requirements, and limitations on physicians.
Consumers in healthcare markets often suffer from a lack of adequate information about what services they need to download and which providers offer the best value proposition.
Of particular interest to public health economic evaluation is agent-based models, which allows agents to act autonomously with their own behavioural rules. Agent-based models have an important role to play in such assessments. To date, the modelling approaches adopted to inform the economic evaluation of public health interventions have tended to be relatively simple, perhaps with the exception of some infectious disease modelling [ 14 ].
The variety of modelling approaches available can provide a more accurate assessment of the efficiency of public health interventions. The value of more complex modelling approaches has recently been acknowledged by NICE, which has started to request more complex modelling approaches. If these approaches are to be successful, however, it is important that the evidence base available to economists is improved. The conclusion section consider the type of evidence that would support this research agenda.
Valuing public health outcomes If economists are to value the broader range of outcomes generated by public health interventions, a new valuation approach will be required. What approach should be adopted? One alternative to capturing multiple, non-health outcomes is to undertake a cost-consequence analysis CCA. This option is advocated by NICE in its public health methods guidelines [ 8 ].
This is problematic, for instance, when some outcomes show benefits and others show dis-benefits, and it becomes necessary to ask about the relative value of these outcomes.
The remainder of this section describes the following alternatives approaches to valuing the outcomes generated by public health interventions identified in the literature: cost-benefit analysis CBA based on preferential valuation techniques; alternative non-preference-based approaches, the capability and subjective well-being SWB approaches; and multi-criteria decision analysis MCDA. This is a method commonly employed in environmental economics [ 16 ], where a range of approaches have been applied to value policy outcomes, including: travel cost method; hedonic price method; and the contingent valuation CV approach [ 16 — 18 ] , with the latter becoming increasingly popular in the economic evaluation of healthcare programmes [ 19 ].
The reliability of stated preference approaches have been debated at length in the environmental economics literature. The panel concluded that this is a valid approach, provided it is done properly [ 20 ].
CBA is, however, an approach that is relatively rare in the assessment of public health interventions. A key challenge to conducting a CBA is generating monetary values of policy outcomes.
In the absence of market prices for outcomes, which is often the case when evaluating public policy, the Green Book recommends that either revealed preference or stated preference methods are used to value outcomes. Revealed preference approaches value outcomes using the preference information revealed through existing markets. For example, the value of preventing a fatality VPF has been calculated by estimating the compensating differentials for on-the-job risk exposure in labour markets, or the amount that people are willing to pay for products that reduce risks, such as for automobiles and fire alarms [ 23 ].
However, the validity of the estimates produced by revealed preference techniques depend on the ability to isolate, for instance, the impact of VPF from the other factors that determine wages and prices.
Furthermore, the revealed preference approach is based on the assumption that markets work well. Given the difficulties posed by the revealed preference approach, economists have turned to stated preference approaches to value non-market goods. Stated preference studies construct a hypothetical contingent market where the individual is surveyed to identify their willingness to pay WTP for the non-market good.
Since the s, the stated preference literature has grown rapidly, especially within environmental economics. Stated preference techniques have been used to identify the relative value of public health outcomes. For instance, a discrete choice experiment DCE was undertaken recently to determine the relative values health decision makers in the UK place on the cost-effectiveness, impact on health inequalities, and population reached by public health interventions [ 25 ].
The advantage of stated preference approaches is their ability to directly elicit the information that is required. However, stated preference techniques face a number of challenges, with probably the main one being the assumption that individuals have a coherent set of preferences.
A number of phenomena have been identified as evidence that such coherent preference may not be observed in practice [ 24 ]. Alternative notions of well-being Despite reassurances from organisations like the NOAA, concerns about the challenge facing preference-based approaches described above have caused economists to search for alternative, non-preference-based notions of value. Two alternatives that have recently received most attention are the capability approach and the SWB approach.
Developed by Amartya Sen, the capability approach advocates that programmes are evaluated based on their impact on the extent to which a person is able has the capability to function in a particular way [ 26 ]. This identifies five over-arching attributes of capability wellbeing: stability, attachment, achievement, autonomy and enjoyment.
Each attribute is then described using four response categories. In its use of a descriptive system based on dimensions or attributes, the evaluation approach proposed by the capability approach is similar to the QALY approach. The key difference between these evaluation approaches is that the descriptive system employed by the QALY is limited to one dimension — health — and to functioning rather than capability — health status rather than the capability freedom to pursue health improvement [ 26 ].
Furthermore, the capability approach does advocate a preference-based approach to weight attributes. The capability approach has been criticised for relying on expert opinion about what contributes to well-being, and an inability to generate a monetary estimate of benefit [ 28 ]. Another alternative has been suggested that does not suffer from these limitations — SWB.
Well-being assessments are elicited, for instance, in responses to questions such as how satisfied people are with their life overall. Answers are generally recorded on scales ranging from, for instance, 1 for not satisfied at all to 7 for completely satisfied. The SWB approach to valuing non-market goods is increasingly being employed by economists as an input to public policy making [ 23 ].