tvnovellas.info Theory MAKE ANALOG SYNTHESIZERS PDF

MAKE ANALOG SYNTHESIZERS PDF

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Similarly, the unique sound of an analog synthesizer is due to The standard analog synthesizer is made up of five basic modules, the. what problems occur when designing an analog synthesizer and what . are interconnected to create a complete application that can be used as a musical instrument. A .. tvnovellas.info, Download eBooks Make Analog Synthesizers [PDF, ePub, Docs] by Ray Wilson Online Full Collection "Click Visit button" to access full FREE ebook.


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The Make logo and Maker Media logo are registered trademarks of Maker Media, Inc. Make: Analog Synthesizers and related trade dress are trademarks of. electronics and analog synthesizers. It is definitely unsuitable does not work as it should, or to make individual suggestions how to wire the board for special. CODE: Download PDF Make: Analog Synthesizers: Make Electronic Sounds the Synth-DIY Way Ebook | READ ONLINE.

Feed your synth addiction and it really is that as you probably know : get this quick! Wilson one ups the old art of producing wonderful synth on a budget taking apart and putting old toys back together with SFX or musically bent circuits, for example! The building blocks are here; he challenges us to take them as far as we want! The combination of circuits and music is literally being reborn, with some of the "old" music circuit books selling for hundreds as folks jump into the new wave of patent opportunities. I made sure I read the book over, and some sections twice, before I embarked. Between the book and working this project, I learned a lot, both about the circuits and construction.

The better the scope is, the lower the switch for each input channel to set the input sensitivity will be able to go.

Make: Analog Synthesizers, 1Ed - PDF

Again, it takes spe- mode to AC or DC. In AC input mode, the DC cialized circuitry to allow a scope to display parts component of the input signal is blocked, allow- of 1mV per division with any kind of accuracy. This is helpful when trying to ob- A decent scope is going to start at about 2mV to serve a low-level signal riding on a relatively high 5mV per division but may include a multiplier DC level.

Scope inputs generally have MHz bandwidth scope. In addition, most scope probes have a switch that allows them to be set to X10 The bottom line is this: When in X10 attenua- width DC-capable scope you can afford.

Analog synthesizer - Wikipedia

Higher priced scopes will have observing. When looking at an analog scope — either new or used — check for these additional features: Scopes generally have a square wave display becomes, and the more out of calibration generator with a connection point on the face it may be.

As you progress in electronics, try to that provides a convenient compensation wave- find a way to get access to a better scope if the form. Just connect the probe set to X10 mode first one you download lacks essential features. You can get a decent starter significant or two least significant digits, so the unit for the price of lunch at a fast food restaurant.

In menu mode, the scope will show you a There are times when, even with all these cool features menu of functions on the screen next to these buttons available on my digital scope, I still find my analog scope and you use them in conjunction with a digital pot or two very helpful. When you start working with a digital scope to select and adjust the parameter of interest. Sometimes the digital scope picks digital scope is an analog scope with really fast A to D up too much data and you find yourself looking at a lot of converters for the input channels and a powerful comput- noise and digital artifacts that a typical analog scope CRT er to process the data streaming from the A to D convert- smooths over for you.

In their defense digital scopes pro- ers. Low noise parts must be used, temperature compensation must be designed in, and the circuitry has to be reliable for years. The rather logical law of test equipment prices is this: Logic Probe What should the multimeter you download be able to A logic probe is a very simple piece of test equip- do? Essentially, it is a pen-like device ed in analog electronics work: What should you look for in a bench supply?

A typical logic probe The logic probe must be powered from the circuit under test, and so it has two leads typically red and black that come out of one end and connect to the positive and ground of your circuit. When you probe the output of a logic gate, the logic probe typically lights the red LED for a high logic level, the green LED for a low logic level, and the yellow LED for an indeterminate logic level. A typical bench power supply Another feature some logic probes have is pulse detection, which stretches out narrow logic pul- Most synth-DIY projects use a bipolar or dual ses both high going and low going , giving you DC power supply.

Op amps, for instance, one of a visual indication that a logic pulse was detected the most commonly used synth-DIY compo- at the tip, even if it would normally be too narrow nents, require a positive voltage, a negative volt- to detect visually.

You can build a simple logic age, and a ground. In synthesizers, the dual or probe yourself or download one with more features to bipolar power supply voltage is usually between save the trouble.

Synth DIY – how to start?

Logic probes come in very han- 9V and 15V. The Bench Power Supply When you are just getting started in electronics, you can work entirely with batteries. Eventually, however, you may want to expand your projects until batteries are no longer practical and a line- powered supply becomes necessary Figure It may not be obvious to people just getting started in synth-DIY, but most analog synth circuits require positive voltage, negative voltage, and a ground.

A dual power supply can also be made from a single 9V battery by creating a virtual ground, or by using dual output power supply. A dual output power two 9V batteries wired as shown here. Often they include built-in voltage and current meters to display both the voltage About ATX Supplies as Bench setting and the current being drawn from the Power Supplies supply. More expensive units include a current Be careful if you decide to harvest a limit setting that protects the circuit being pow- power supply out of an old computer.

A full-wave rectified dual- analog supply delivering a couple of experiment than a high current output bench amps of clean power is a better choice.

Figure shows two ways to make a bi- polar supply using 9V batteries and a few components. Connect the negative connection of one you go out and download them, look for a multimeter supply to the positive connection of the other with more accuracy and functionality. I say this supply. This will become the neutral or signal because you can save money by getting a mul- ground connection output point of the dual DC timeter that also measures capacitance and fre- supply. The remaining unconnected positive ter- quency.

The dual bench sup- as soon as you can. Use your favorite search engine to look for electronic instrument 16 Make: The prize for your patience is mS accuracy if you can call that accurate. Most dedicated frequency counters are mainly for counting high frequen- cies in the MHz and GHz region and give short shrift to the audio and lower-frequency range.

A typical frequency counter Figure A typical capacitance meter However, unless you really need extreme meas- The dedicated frequency counter certainly has urement range and accuracy, go for a more func- its place, but a much faster algorithm for deter- tional multimeter with capacitance measuring mining the frequency of a regular non- capability. The more accurately you measure the Before I even get started, I repeat: Many multimeters do this, and in my your first instrument.

My dedicated frequency counter sits and measurements, then download a second multimeter collects dust. As Marley said to Scrooge: A function generator comes in handy all the time Many frequency counters have precise settable when working on analog synthesizers gate times, during which the number of transi- Figure I still list it as a nice-to-have because tions that take place on the input are counted a hobbyist can make a simple but useful function Figure So if the meter reports that 10 tran- generator for bench use.

Since the waveform, sitions took place during a 1-second gate time, amplitude, DC offset, and frequency of the out- we know that the frequency is about 10 Hz. Nine times out of ten, the problem was a bad solder joint. Reliable solder joints are the cornerstone of a re- liable circuit. Improper solder joints can lead to all kinds of problems: A host of factors affect the quality of solder joints.

Here is a list of some of the important factors affecting solder joint quality: Another cool feature is fre- quency sweep capability. While the cheap pencil solder its bandwidth. As you feed the sweeping fre- irons are an inexpensive way to get started, I quency into the circuit under test input, you ob- heartily recommend that you save up and get an serve the amplitude of the output of the circuit adjustable temperature-controlled solder sta- under test using an oscilloscope.

Pdf synthesizers make analog

The frequency tion ASAP. I have a couple of soldering stations: I use both of bandwidth. Better more expensive function them all of the time and they both do the job just generators go higher in frequency, have more fine.

So what exactly should you look for in a waveforms, and allow more precise sweep set- temperature-controlled solder station? I usually encourage them 18 Make: Always remove rosin flux residue after soldering with an appropriate solvent for the ros- in type.

Choose an environmentally friendly type of flux remover no chlorinated fluorocarbons to keep the ozone layer and your karma in good shape.

If you can get the Use solvent-soaked plastic or horse hair Alright, now that we have a decent solder station, bristle brushes to scrub areas in need of flux re- how do we put it to the best use? I like to cut the bristles short on a few brushes for when more scrubbing power is need- Soldering Tips ed. Canned air is good for tin-lead solder. When wiring panel compo- blowing the excess solvent and suspended flux nents, you might want to use a thicker solder off of the board as well as drying it after cleaning.

The one-pound spool of solder, while a bit good to go. Figure shows the basic tools of an investment, is actually the most cost- necessary for reliable soldering and desoldering.

Set the temperature of your solder station to be- tween degrees C degrees F and degrees C degrees F. This necessitates the higher temperature setting to ensure that the solder becomes molten quickly and good eutectic bonding takes place.

The rosin flux in the solder has several important benefits. It prevents surface oxidation during Figure After a few wipes on the damp above degrees C is just bad all over. You will melt tip and wipe it on the sponge again. Keeping the plastic elements of components that adjoin ter- tip coated with fresh solder will help it to transfer minals.

You will delaminate pads from your PC heat quickly to the items being soldered. Of course, if there components that have plastic parts. Figure about to solder components with plastic parts. After you apply the solder iron, imme- tures.

Once the solder flows, remove the tip and let the joint cool un- Rosin Paste Flux disturbed. The soldered joints nents. To minimize the solder iron ap- should not look like bumps but should have con- plication time, I apply a tiny amount of Qualitek B PF Rosin Paste cave fillets. Practice on a scrap PC board until you Flux with a toothpick to terminals prior feel comfortable and your solder joints look shiny to soldering.

The additional rosin flux and have nice fillets. Let the soldering iron heat up before beginning. Damp is good but soaking wet is…not so good. Proper solder tip and solder application perature to fall excessively by dipping it into a 20 Make: However, nent lead formed on both the bottom and the after you solder a number of joints, the tip will top of the PC board.

Double-sided PC boards have what are known as plated through-holes. During the manufacturing of PC boards, the holes for mounting compo- nents are drilled through the copper-clad mate- rial first, and then those holes are plated through with copper Figure shows a cross-sectional view of a plated through-hole.

This is a process that causes copper to be plated onto the walls of the component mounting holes drilled through the PC board material. These plated through connections give PCB pads extra strength and resistance to delamination and are used to route electrical signals between the two sides of the PC Figure Solder flow through plated through-hole board.

AAfter plating the insides of the through- holes with copper, the etching, solder coating, If too much heat is applied by the tip and the and solder masking processes are completed.

Turn the heat down a bit and apply some fresh solder with rosin in it to reflow the joint. A good solder joint should ap- pear bright and shiny, especially after cleaning Figure Too much solder applied to a joint or that accidentally bridged two pads may need to be removed using desoldering braid dis- cussed below. Here is what to do.

Synthesizers pdf analog make

Turn the board over. Using aluminum or stain- less steel tweezers with a fine point, grasp the remaining lead with one hand and apply the sol- dering iron tip so that it contacts the PCB pad and the lead simultaneously. When the solder be- comes molten, gently pull the lead with the tweezers and remove it.

Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this.

No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. After them to produce something new. DIY, as I call it? I love the creativity shown in this er to compare notes and see and hear one an- build: The LFO pro- learning where to find the best prices and selec- vides a variety of waveforms with which to mod- tion for electronic components.

And finally, its actually making your own analog synthesizer, from something as small as a lo-fi noise box to as huge as a modular mon- ster that would have cost tens of thousands in the analog heydays. What Can I Build? What you can successfully build depends on the level of electronics knowledge you possess, the effort you put forth to learn and become profi- cient, and the passion you have to build your own Figure This DIYer etched the circuit board for this eight- Some people go to great lengths to express step sequencer in Figure from a layout pub- themselves through synth-DIY.

Figures lished on the MFOS website and then built up the through show some of the more unusual ex- entire project. Sequencers are used for repeating amples. If you plan to gut your Stradivarius for a patterns of notes and creating arpeggiation synth case, I suggest you think it over calmly for effects.

Using parts of a human body is also up to you, but as you can see, it has been done. And finally, some folks like to wear their synthesizer and march through their neighborhood. Doing so is entirely up to you and perhaps your homeowners association. Figure A wearable synth designed for a synth march- Figure While not expen- sive, the practice does require a bit of expendable income. But then, so does just about any hobby.

When you start to get serious about analog syn- thesizer projects, you will be surprised at the cool things you can build. This project goes farther than the Sound Lab Mini-Synth and adds a third oscillator, a sample and hold module, a second LFO, and several attenuators used for general signal at- tenuation and control. The project in Figure which that has as many modules as you care to build, includes the keyboard was built by Magnaval.

The sound possibilities of something like this are virtually limitless. So now you know where this road can take you. You can dip your toe into the water and build a simple sound generation box, or you can dive into the deep end and build a giant modular an- alog synthesizer or, of course, anything in be- tween.

I can say from experience that synth-DIY is one of the coolest hobbies going. I attended NASA soldering certification classes back in my days at Intec Systems and learned to solder and desolder through-hole and surface mount components under a stereo microscope.

Workbench Trying to work on an electronic project without The Oscilloscope the proper test instruments is like trying to work on a car without a set of wrenches. Without a digital Figure Without an oscilloscope, ahead of their analog counterparts. For example, a frequency useful functions that only the digital units counter is definitely nice to have, but I suggest provide. I bought a decent frequency counter but soon discovered that the frequency counting function in my 50,count multimeter captures and dis- plays the frequency using a faster frequency de- termining algorithm.

Going from no scope to any Bandwidth scope was a great thing. Single MHz, or higher. However, as soon as opportunity specialized analog components to attain the knocks, go to a multichannel scope.

There are higher frequency response. On the low end of the frequency bandwidth, your scope should have DC measurement capability. I recommend at least two channels for serious This is the only way you will be able to look at analog synth work, but if you happen to own a really slowly changing waveforms or DC voltage diamond mine, go for four.

In DC-capable scopes, there is a selector important. The better the scope is, the lower the switch for each input channel to set the input sensitivity will be able to go. Again, it takes spe- mode to AC or DC.

In AC input mode, the DC cialized circuitry to allow a scope to display parts component of the input signal is blocked, allow- of 1mV per division with any kind of accuracy. This is helpful when trying to ob- A decent scope is going to start at about 2mV to serve a low-level signal riding on a relatively high 5mV per division but may include a multiplier DC level. Scope inputs generally have MHz bandwidth scope. In addition, most scope probes have a switch that allows them to be set to X10 The bottom line is this: When in X10 attenua- width DC-capable scope you can afford.

Higher priced scopes will have observing. When looking at an analog scope — either new or used — check for these additional features: Scopes generally have a square wave display becomes, and the more out of calibration generator with a connection point on the face it may be. As you progress in electronics, try to that provides a convenient compensation wave- find a way to get access to a better scope if the form.

Just connect the probe set to X10 mode first one you download lacks essential features. You can get a decent starter significant or two least significant digits, so the unit for the price of lunch at a fast food restaurant. In menu mode, the scope will show you a There are times when, even with all these cool features menu of functions on the screen next to these buttons available on my digital scope, I still find my analog scope and you use them in conjunction with a digital pot or two very helpful.

When you start working with a digital scope to select and adjust the parameter of interest. Sometimes the digital scope picks digital scope is an analog scope with really fast A to D up too much data and you find yourself looking at a lot of converters for the input channels and a powerful comput- noise and digital artifacts that a typical analog scope CRT er to process the data streaming from the A to D convert- smooths over for you.

In their defense digital scopes pro- ers. Low noise parts must be used, temperature compensation must be designed in, and the circuitry has to be reliable for years. The rather logical law of test equipment prices is this: Logic Probe What should the multimeter you download be able to A logic probe is a very simple piece of test equip- do?

Essentially, it is a pen-like device ed in analog electronics work: What should you look for in a bench supply? A typical logic probe The logic probe must be powered from the circuit under test, and so it has two leads typically red and black that come out of one end and connect to the positive and ground of your circuit.

When you probe the output of a logic gate, the logic probe typically lights the red LED for a high logic level, the green LED for a low logic level, and the yellow LED for an indeterminate logic level. A typical bench power supply Another feature some logic probes have is pulse detection, which stretches out narrow logic pul- Most synth-DIY projects use a bipolar or dual ses both high going and low going , giving you DC power supply.

Op amps, for instance, one of a visual indication that a logic pulse was detected the most commonly used synth-DIY compo- at the tip, even if it would normally be too narrow nents, require a positive voltage, a negative volt- to detect visually.

You can build a simple logic age, and a ground. In synthesizers, the dual or probe yourself or download one with more features to bipolar power supply voltage is usually between save the trouble. Logic probes come in very han- 9V and 15V. The Bench Power Supply When you are just getting started in electronics, you can work entirely with batteries.

Eventually, however, you may want to expand your projects until batteries are no longer practical and a line- powered supply becomes necessary Figure It may not be obvious to people just getting started in synth-DIY, but most analog synth circuits require positive voltage, negative voltage, and a ground. A dual power supply can also be made from a single 9V battery by creating a virtual ground, or by using dual output power supply.

Analog synthesizer

A dual output power two 9V batteries wired as shown here. Often they include built-in voltage and current meters to display both the voltage About ATX Supplies as Bench setting and the current being drawn from the Power Supplies supply. More expensive units include a current Be careful if you decide to harvest a limit setting that protects the circuit being pow- power supply out of an old computer. A full-wave rectified dual- analog supply delivering a couple of experiment than a high current output bench amps of clean power is a better choice.

Figure shows two ways to make a bi- polar supply using 9V batteries and a few components. Connect the negative connection of one you go out and download them, look for a multimeter supply to the positive connection of the other with more accuracy and functionality. I say this supply. This will become the neutral or signal because you can save money by getting a mul- ground connection output point of the dual DC timeter that also measures capacitance and fre- supply.

The remaining unconnected positive ter- quency. The dual bench sup- as soon as you can. Use your favorite search engine to look for electronic instrument 16 Make: The prize for your patience is mS accuracy if you can call that accurate. Most dedicated frequency counters are mainly for counting high frequen- cies in the MHz and GHz region and give short shrift to the audio and lower-frequency range. A typical frequency counter Figure A typical capacitance meter However, unless you really need extreme meas- The dedicated frequency counter certainly has urement range and accuracy, go for a more func- its place, but a much faster algorithm for deter- tional multimeter with capacitance measuring mining the frequency of a regular non- capability.

The more accurately you measure the Before I even get started, I repeat: Many multimeters do this, and in my your first instrument. My dedicated frequency counter sits and measurements, then download a second multimeter collects dust.

As Marley said to Scrooge: A function generator comes in handy all the time Many frequency counters have precise settable when working on analog synthesizers gate times, during which the number of transi- Figure I still list it as a nice-to-have because tions that take place on the input are counted a hobbyist can make a simple but useful function Figure So if the meter reports that 10 tran- generator for bench use.

Since the waveform, sitions took place during a 1-second gate time, amplitude, DC offset, and frequency of the out- we know that the frequency is about 10 Hz.

Nine times out of ten, the problem was a bad solder joint. Reliable solder joints are the cornerstone of a re- liable circuit. Improper solder joints can lead to all kinds of problems: A host of factors affect the quality of solder joints. Here is a list of some of the important factors affecting solder joint quality: Another cool feature is fre- quency sweep capability.

While the cheap pencil solder its bandwidth.

As you feed the sweeping fre- irons are an inexpensive way to get started, I quency into the circuit under test input, you ob- heartily recommend that you save up and get an serve the amplitude of the output of the circuit adjustable temperature-controlled solder sta- under test using an oscilloscope.

The frequency tion ASAP. I have a couple of soldering stations: I use both of bandwidth. Better more expensive function them all of the time and they both do the job just generators go higher in frequency, have more fine. So what exactly should you look for in a waveforms, and allow more precise sweep set- temperature-controlled solder station?

I usually encourage them 18 Make: Always remove rosin flux residue after soldering with an appropriate solvent for the ros- in type.

Choose an environmentally friendly type of flux remover no chlorinated fluorocarbons to keep the ozone layer and your karma in good shape. If you can get the Use solvent-soaked plastic or horse hair Alright, now that we have a decent solder station, bristle brushes to scrub areas in need of flux re- how do we put it to the best use?